The endometrial microbiome is assumed to modulate the functions of endometrial cells and local immunity system, it prevents growth of pathogenic microorganisms by its presence and production of protective substances. Also, endometrial microbiome seems to be important factor of endometrial receptivity.
The implantation of the embryo and its development takes place in the endometrium. The endometrium is not sterile of microorganisms as once thought. It is colonized by microorganisms (endometrial microbiome). Colonization of the endometrium by the right microorganisms can contribute to fertility by ensuring implantation and development of the embryo.
The disorder in the endometrial microbiome may cause chronic endometritis. Endometritis affects the ability of the uterus to accept the embryo, even if it meets all the criteria for pregnancy. Furthermore, inflammation of the uterus can also reduce the number of days that the embryo can be implanted in the uterus. Finally, it may cause changes in the balance of cells in the endometrium , which affects the function of the endometrial secretory glands.
Next generation sequencing allow scientists to perform culture-free identification of complex microbial communities. These methods can also accelerate discovery of novel species in microbiome samples and facilitate detection of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes.
The biopsy of the endometrium for the microbiome is done on the clinic on the specific day of the cycle. No sedation is needed, it is painless and simple . It is recommended to be done in the cycle before the embryo transfer procedure.
Dr. Papanikolaou performs the test in all the above cases, for maximum chances of success.
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